UDRŽOVÁNÍ CÍRKVE IDEÁLY,Z NICHŽ SE ZRODILA. SOCIOLOGICKÉ SNAHY V CÍRKVI ČESKOSLOVENSKÉ (HUSITSKÉ)

ZDENĚK R. NEŠPOR & JIŘÍ VEČERNÍK

SOCIOLOGICKÝ ÚSTAV AV ČR
INSTITUTE OF SOCIOLOGY CAS

CHURCH IS SUSTAINED BY THE IDEALS FROM WHICH IT WAS BORN: SOCIOLOGICAL
EFFORTS IN THE CZECHOSLOVAK (HUSSITE) CHURCH

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Abstract: The Czechoslovak (Hussite) Church was established in the 1920 as a result of unsatisfied
ideological and canonic demands of a part of the Roman Catholic clergy, and national and religiously
liberal moods of the public. The church was therefore occasionally accused of populism, and the
sociological interests of church leaders should be understanding in this respect. The authors studied
the sociological efforts of church members and relevant publications, and although they state that
religious statistics and sociology developed in the church in its first decades, its sources were different
and the application rather exceptional. The efforts started in (attempts at) sociology of clergy, and
the latter important authors František M. Hník and Vladimír Srb met the academic standards of the
discipline in their 1930s and 1940s works. In later years, however, religious sociology in the church
disappeared, partly due to external reasons (unavailability of sources), partly due to the ideological
reorientation of the church itself.

Keywords: sociology of religion; religious sociology; Czechoslovak (Hussite) Church; Czechoslovakia
– religion; church membership

THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, Vol. 92, 2021, No. 3, Number of Article 3, p. 268 – 284.
DOI: 10.14712/12117617.92.3.3

SPÔSOBY ŠÍRENIA TEOLOGICKÝCH MYŠLIENOK A DIEL J. A. KOMENSKÉHO NA ÚZEMÍ SLOVENSKA DO KONCA 17. STOROČIA

MARTIN KMEC

KATEDRA CIRKEVNÝCH DEJÍN EVANJELICKÁ BOHOSLOVECKÁ FAKULTA
UNIVERZITA KOMENSKÉHO V BRATISLAVE
DEPARTMENT OF CHURCH HISTORY EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN THEOLOGICAL FACULTY
COMENIUS UNIVERSITY BRATISLAVA

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THE WAYS OF SPREADING THEOLOGICAL IDEAS AND WORKS OF J. A. COMENIUS IN THE SLOVAKIAN
TERRITORY UNTIL THE END OF THE 17TH CENTURY

Abstract: J. A. Comenius’ theological ideas were well-received in the northern regions of Austro-
Hungarian Empire (what is today Slovakia). Many of his notable works were spread across the region
in various ways. Geographical and language affinity of today’s Slovakia, Moravia and the Czech lands
constituted optimal conditions for not only cultural, economic, or church relations, but also for
personal connections. This was the case especially after the year 1624 and even more after 1628,
during the time of religious exile of Czech non-Catholic priests, middle-class, and nobility, following
the defeat of the Protestant forces in the Battle of White Mountain.
We examined the main congregations of Unitas Fratrum (United Brotherhood) in Slovakia, which
helped us appreciate the role of exile print for distribution and popularization of Comenius’ practical
religious works. The theological tradition of Comenius found several paths into Slovakia. We can
detect its presence at Protestants city schools, among students, and individual people. Besides the
members of Unitas Fratrum, the main role of spreading theological ideas and works of J.A. Comenius
can be attributed to the printing of his books and rich contacts between Comenius and people in
what is today Slovakia and as well as lower Hungary. The main goal of this paper is to identify and
describe the ways of how J. A. Comenius’ theological ideas and works spread the territory of Upper
Hungary (Slovakia) during the 17th century.

Keywords: John Amos Comenius; Slovakia; Comenius’ theology; Unitas Fratrum; Czech-Moravian
exiles

THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, Vol. 92, 2021, No. 3, Number of Article 2, p. 258 – 267.
DOI: 10.14712/12117617.92.3.2

HUSITSKÉ TEOLOGICKÉ MYSLENIE

ŠTEFAN ŠROBÁR

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THEOLOGICAL THINKING OF HUSSITIES

Abstract: Hussite text becomes theological only when it starts reflecting relation of Man to God.
Messianism is convinced that a certain nation was entrusted by God with salvation mission among
other nations. Even Hussities felt to be „chosen by God“ to amend the church and society. According
to Hussities radicals, in 1419-1420 apocalyptic expectations of final fight with Antichrist, second
arrival of Christ to the world and establishment of God´s kingdom started to come true. Waldensians
lived their protest at the edge of Christianity, which renounced them. Hussities scholars where to
provide theoretical expression for Waldesnians approach. Hus for Viklef and viklefism gained the
effort for moral life of all estates of society, mainly clergy. In Bohemia, Konrad Waldhauser, Milíč
from Kroměříž, Matej from Janov were Hus´s predecessors. M. Jakoubek from Stříbro was his own
creator of Hussities theology. Possibility of laymen goblet was based on Christ´s words during The
Last Supper. Hussitenism played important role in creating modern Czech identity.

Keywords: theological reflection; messianism; Waldensians; Viklef; Hus´s predecessors; lay goblet
THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, Vol. 92, 2021, No. 3, Number of Article 1, p. 249 – 257.

DOI: 10.14712/12117617.92.3.1

RABI MOŠE CHAJIM LUZZATTO: DERECH HA-ŠEM – KAPITOLA PRVNÍ – O STVOŘITELI, JMÉNO JEHO BUDIŽ POŽEHNÁNO

Markéta Holubová

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RABBI MOSHE HAYIM LUZZATTO: THE WAY OF THE LORD – CHAPTER ONE – THE CREATOR, BLESSED
BE HIS NAME

Abstract: This article is another part of the series focused on the life and works of Rabbi Moshe Hayim Luzzatto
(1707—1746; has been known under the acronym RaMHaL), one of the greatest Jewish thinkers.
This part brings the translation of Chapter One (focused on God‘s Existence, truth and boundaries
of human cognitive process) from Luzzatto’s religious philosophical treatise Derekh Ha-Shem (i.e.
The Way of The Lord; usually translated as The Way of God). The author of the translation tries
to clarify RaMHaL’s way of thinking (via commentary as well as a system of comprehensive and
detailed footnotes which takes into account the religious, philosophic, and historic context of Rabbi
Moshe Hayim Luzzatto’s specific approach).

Keywords: Judaism; Moshe Hayim Luzzatto; Knowledge; Philosophy; Kabbalah

THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, Vol. 92, 2021, No. 2, Number of Article 5, p. 201 – 218.
DOI: 10.14712/12117617.92.2.5

ANALÝZA A POROVNÁNÍ STARŠÍ SEKUNDÁRNÍ LITERATURY K FRANKISMU: HEINRICH GRAETZ A ALEKSANDER KRAUSHAR

Adam Baudiš

Dominika Šimlová

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AN ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF THE SECONDARY LITERATURE RELATED TO FRANKISM:
HEINRICH GRAETZ AND ALEKSANDER KRAUSHAR

Abstract: Frankism, a new religious movement of the late 18th century, has presented a controversial
theme in Jewish historiography nearly since its inception in the first half of the 19th century, and
it is still controversial today, mostly because of continuous reiteration of the politicized statements
made in those times and promoted by experts such as Gershom Scholem. In the paper presented
here we aim to show the evolution of these interpretations evident in the example of two influential
historians of Judaism—Heinrich Graetz and Aleksander Kraushar— whose opinions on Frankism
were, as we argue here, highly influenced by their personal views on Judaism. While Graetz presents
a more traditional approach based on his distrust towards Jewish mysticism, Kraushar represents
the beginnings of the modern research influenced by his personal views on assimilation and his
critique of traditional Judaism.

Keywords: Frankism; historiography of the 19th century; Heinrich Graetz; Aleksander Kraushar

THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, Vol. 92, 2021, No. 2, Number of Article 4, p. 189 – 200.
DOI: 10.14712/12117617.92.2.4

PŘEDSTAVENÍ DOKUMENTU „O LIDSKÉM BRATRSTVÍ“ A JEHO UPRAVENÝ PŘEKLAD

Lukáš de la Vega Nosek

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THE PRESENTATION OF THE DOCUMENT “ON HUMAN FRATERNITY” AND ITS ANNOTATED
TRANSLATION. DOCUMENT ON HUMAN FRATERNITY I

Abstract: The paper presents the context of a Document on Human Fraternity for World Peace
and Living Together which was signed in February 2019. This study notices the context of the
conference in Abu Dhabi in February 2019 and introduces the life and works of both signatories:
Pope Francis and Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Ahmad at-Tayyib. The second part of the paper presents
the entire edited and annotated translation of the document into Czech. It is enriched by paragraph
numbering and text structuring by headings. Finally, the study also presents practical fulfillments
and useful impacts of the document on Muslim society and society as a whole.
Keywords: human fraternity; document of Abu Dhabi; pope Francis; great imam Ahmad at-Tayyeb;
interreligious dialogue

THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, Vol. 92, 2021, No. 2, Number of Article 3, p. 169 – 188.
DOI: 10.14712/12117617.92.2.3

REFORMOVANÁ CIRKEV A KNIEŽACIA MOC V SEDMOHRADSKU V 16.- 17. STOROČÍ

Annamária Kónyová

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THE REFORMED CHURCH AND PRINCELY POWER IN THE TRANSYLVANIAN PRINCIPALITY IN THE
16TH – 17TH CENTURY

Abstract: The Calvinist Reformation had its own specific character in Transylvania during the 16th
and 17th centuries. The process of reformation was very narrowly connected with the process of the
rising independent Transylvania. These processes were started after the Battle of the Mohács(1526)
when the internal and international conditions allowed for the penetration the ideas of Lutheranism
and also the teaching of Calvinism in the 50s of the 16th century. The ideas of Calvinism were mainly
accepted by ethnic Hungarians. In 1564 during the synod in Nagyenyed the followers of Lutheranism
and Calvinism definitely separated, and the Calvinist established the first bishop, František Dávid.
During the following years the Calvinist church had to fight with the radical teaching of Unitarianism,
because many famous representatives of Calvinism accepted Unitarianism, for example František
Dávid or Gašpár Heltai (who translated the Bible into Hungarian). The “golden age” for the Reformed
church in Transylvania was the government of Gabriel Bethlen and Juraj I. Rákóczi. Both of them
were wealthy supporters of Calvinism and established many schools (Sárospatak, Nagyenyed). In
this period the Reformed church started reformation activities among the Romanian (Orthodox)
population, but with not great success. The decline of religious freedom in Transylvania started
during the 80s of the 17th century when the principality was coming back under the domination of
the Habsburgs.

Keywords: calvinism; Transylvania; reformed church; Bethlen; Rákóczi; princeps

THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, Vol. 92, 2021, No. 2, Number of Article 2, p. 150 – 168.
DOI: 10.14712/12117617.92.2.2

GNÓZE A JANOVSKÉ KŘESŤANSTVÍ JAKO ANALYTICKÉ KATEGORIE ANEB „PODLE PLODŮ JEJICH POZNÁTE JE“

Magdaléna Vytlačilová

Jiří Gebelt

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GNOSIS AND JOHANNINE CHRISTIANITY AS ANALYTICAL CATEGORIES. A CONTRIBUTION TO THE
CREATION AND USE OF CATEGORIES IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

Abstract: We propose a conception of social scientific categories based on a critical reflection and
discussion of two categories used in the study of early Christianity and the religion of late antiquity:
Gnosticism and Johannine Christianity. We evaluate three recent theoretical discussions regarding
the category of Gnosticism: the issue of the analytical inaccuracy of the category (M. A. Williams),
deriving and using of categories that are based on the self-designation of the analysed subject (B.
Layton, D. Brakke) and finally the negative connotations of the category (K. L. King). Since there
is minimal theoretical (meta)reflection on the category of Johannine Christianity in Johannine
research, we critically define the problems of prevailing unreflected consensus (e.g. R. E. Brown or
R. Hakola).
Each sub-point generates questions of a general nature, which we address in the next part of the
text. We present the answers in the following structure: first, we deal with how we create categories;
then, with their status; and finally, we focus on how we work with categories and according to what
criteria we evaluate them.
We summarised the results as follows: Adequate legitimate analytical categories are those that
are of the second order, i.e. they are not primarily based on self-labelling / self-understanding,
they are not understood as true or false representations of reality, but as utilitarian schemes to
understand a fact, and they are appropriately defined and justified.
Concerning the fragmentary nature and number of preserved sources used in the study of early
Christianity, such a concept has several advantages. Ad 1) The categories of the analysis are
separated from the potentially normative first order categories. Ad 2) Although we strive for the
most adequate knowledge/grasp of the researched facts, we are aware that the data we work
with do not have any independent existence, but their form depends on what conceptual tools we
use. Ad 3) The interpretation of a specific material without a proper and reflected definition of the
category easily results in ideological distortion. E.g. the category Johannine Christianity distorts the
sources (in our case, John‘s corpus) and distorts the broader interpreted context (early Christianity).
Therefore, not correctly defining the researcher‘s category to analyse a group of texts can have farreaching
consequences for interpreting other texts.

Keywords: Gnosticism; Johannine Christianity; early Christianity; category formation

THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, Vol. 92, 2021, No. 2, Number of Article 1, p. 120 – 149.
DOI: 10.14712/12117617.92.2.1

FILOSOFIE NOUZE PRO DNEŠNÍ SPOLEČNOST

Josef Dolista

Pavla Damohorská

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A PHILOSOPHY OF NEED AND NECESSITY FOR CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY

Abstract: Theology is a multidisciplinary field dealing not only with the relations between God and
man but also among humankind. Therefore, the task of Theology is to deal with the contemporary
problems of human society. The following articles by Prof. Josef Dolista and Dr. Pavla Damohorska
deal with some aspects of the present society deeply influenced by the pandemic situation. While
Professor Dolista focuses on the attitude of medical staff towards individuals, Dr. Damohorska’s
contribution outlines some basic features of the human character in relation to Jewish ethics as well
as the way of how to overcome the negative aspects.

Keywords: need; philosophy; pandemic; ethics; humanity; Viktor Frankl; Maharal; religion; creation;
society
THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, Vol. 92, 2021, No. 1, Number of Article 6, p. 92 – 100.

DOI: 10.14712/12117617.92.1.6

VYUŽITÍ WHITEHOUSOVY TEORIE MODŮ RELIGIOZITY K VÝZKUMU RITUÁLU VEČERNÍ ŠABATOVÉ BOHOSLUŽBY

Dominika Šimlová

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THE USE OF THE THEORY OF DIVERGENT MODES OF RELIGIOSITY ON THE RITUAL OF THE SHABBAT
EVENING SERVICE

Abstract: This study considers the possible application of the Theory of divergent Modes of
Religiosity in the research context of the Shabbat evening service. The Modes of Religiosity Theory
was formulated by British anthropologist Harvey Whitehouse, a significant representative of the first
generation of the cognitive science of religion (CSR). This article shows that it is possible to apply the
theory as an analytical tool in the study of rituals. Clarification concerning the usage of Whitehouse‘s
thesis in the example of the traditional Shabbat evening service is made, which is presented under
the theme of a “complex ritual” (following B. Gladigow). Due to the local and ideological diversity
of the ritual and clear application of the theory, a standard course is of the traditional evening
Shabbat service is constructed, a course which is based on the theoretical starting points of
R. Grimese. Such a ritual in fact constitutes actual praxis in the real world. Through application of the
main arguments from the Modes Theory (by substitution of variable characteristics) regarding the
constructed course of rituals, a possible cognitive oriented explanation of service which shows the
limits of practical usage of the Theory may be generated. The goal of this interpretation is a critical
delimitation of the resulting explanation with the intent of taking a unique stand to clear the use of
Whitehouse‘s Modes of Religiosity Theory as an analytic tool for research into rituals.

Keywords: ritual; the theory of divergent Modes of Religiosity; Harvey Whitehouse; Shabbat
evening service

THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, Vol. 92, 2021, No. 1, Number of Article 5, p. 71 – 91.
DOI: 10.14712/12117617.92.1.5